HS-LS2-2.Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. [Clarification Statement: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.][Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided data.] LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of species in any given ecosystem. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2) LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions. If a modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its more or less original status (i.e., the ecosystem is resilient), as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem. Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability. (HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-6 Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Use mathematical representations of phenomena or design solutions to support and revise explanations. (HS-LS2-2) Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence. (HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-3) Scale, Proportion, and Quantity Using the concept of orders of magnitude allows one to understand how a model at one scale relates to a model at another scale. (HS-LS2-2) Associated DCIs: **HS.ESS2.E** (HS-LS2-2) **HS.ESS3.A** (HS-LS2-2); **HS.ESS3.C** (HS-LS2-2); **HS.ESS3.D** (HS-LS2-2) ELA/Literacy – RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-6),(HS-LS2-8) WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-3) Mathematics – MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-6),(HS-LS2-7) MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4) HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-7) HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-7) HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-7) HSS-ID.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line. (HS-LS2-6)

Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. [Clarification Statement: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.][Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided data.]LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of species in any given ecosystem. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2)

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions. If a modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its more or less original status (i.e., the ecosystem is resilient), as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem. Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability. (HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-6

Using Mathematics and Computational ThinkingMathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data.Use mathematical representations of phenomena or design solutions to support and revise explanations. (HS-LS2-2)

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence. (HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-3)Scale, Proportion, and QuantityUsing the concept of orders of magnitude allows one to understand how a model at one scale relates to a model at another scale. (HS-LS2-2)Associated DCIs: **HS.ESS2.E** (HS-LS2-2) **HS.ESS3.A** (HS-LS2-2); **HS.ESS3.C** (HS-LS2-2); **HS.ESS3.D** (HS-LS2-2)

ELA/Literacy –

RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-6),(HS-LS2-8)

WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-3)

Mathematics –

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-6),(HS-LS2-7)

MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4)

HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-7)

HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-7)

HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-7)

HSS-ID.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line. (HS-LS2-6)

Suggested Activities: