HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
LS4.B: Natural Selection
Natural selection occurs only if there is both (1) variation in the genetic information between organisms in a population and (2) variation in the expression of that genetic information—that is, trait variation—that leads to differences in performance among individuals. (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3)
LS4.C: Adaptation
Evolution is a consequence of the interaction of four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for an environment’s limited supply of the resources that individuals need in order to survive and reproduce, and (4) the ensuing proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in that environment. (HS-LS4-2)
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.Construct an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future. (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-4)
Cause and Effect Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects. (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5),(HS-LS4-6)
Associated DCIs:**HS.LS2.A** (HS-LS4-2); **HS.LS2.D** (HS-LS4-2); **HS.LS3.B** (HS-LS4-2); ; **HS.ESS2.E** (HS-LS4-2); **HS.ESS3.A** (HS-LS4-2)
ELA/Literacy –
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
SL.11-12.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics –
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

Suggested Activities: